Emanuel Ber, 5, plays with yellow maize at their home in Rachuonyo, Homa Bay County, on January 19, 2016. National Biosafety Authority has approved cultivation trials for GMO maize. PHOTO | TOM OTIENO | NATION MEDIA GROUP
A public-private consortium behind the scientific development of drought and pest resistant high yielding maize varieties says last week’s approval for national field trials is the way to go.
Acting Kenya Agricultural Livestock and research Organisation (Kalro) Director General Eliud Kiplimo, and the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) Executive Director Denis Kyetere said they would immediately embark on the next step of identifying suitable varieties for various regions that are adversely affected by stem borers.
“This will help farmers harvest enough to feed their families and get a surplus, which they can sell to increase their incomes, thereby strengthening local communities,” said Dr Kyetere.
Dr Kiplimo said success of the Wema Bt maize portends a bright future for agriculture, where the government could give science a central role in providing solutions to food shortages and fighting pests and diseases.
“It will inject new interest in using scientific innovations and fast-track adoption of appropriate technologies to address national food security,” he said when he disclosed the new development to researchers currently meeting in Dar es salaam to review the project’s progress.
AATF and Kalro launched scientific trials after socio-economic studies showed the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus) and the African Stem Borer (Busseola fusca) wreaked havoc across maize plantations, causing smallholder farmers a Sh9 billion loss, equivalent to 400,000 bags of maize, which then forced the government to import the staple.
CONTROLLED MAIZE INFESTATION
The three-year trial led to development of Bt maize varieties that effectively controlled maize infestation and damage by the two major pests.
The NPT process, they said, would take two years as the variety release process takes about two planting seasons before the maize is eventually reaches farmers.
It is after the trials and testing that the minister for Agriculture sanctions release of proven Bt Maize varieties suitable for the various regions for propagation and sale to growers.
The statement said Kenyan and African farmers need a range of options including access to GM technology that could increase their yields and help Kenya fight food insecurity.
The first GM crop testing began in the 1980s and there have now been more than 2,500 regulatory approvals granted by 60 countries on more than 300 products globally.
Sunday Akile addresses the Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology in Kampala. (Credit: Christopher Bendana)
KAMPALA – Sunday Akile, the programme officer for legal and policy biosafety at the African Biosafety Network of Expertise (ABNE), has lauded Ugandan scientists doing research on biotechnology.
ABNE is an institution of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD).
“Our scientists have scored high in this field. We move with our heads high,” he told participants attending the Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology (OFAB) at Hotel Royale on Thursday.
Akile was presenting a paper titled Regulatory Status of Biotechnology Applications in the East Africa Community.
ABNE is involved in building capacity of national and institutional biosafety institutions across the continent.
He said that though Uganda had made strides in biotechnology research, the research had stagnated due to lack of a law.
The National Biotechnology and Biosafety Bill 2012 – meant to regulate biotechnology – is still under debate in parliament.
Phyllis Chemutai, Woman MP for Kapchorwa district called on parliament to pass the bill before end of term of the current parliament. She said the bill will help scientists address agricultural challenges of climate change and food insecurity.
Dr Theresa Ssengoobe, a member of the National Agricultural Research Organisation Council, said the bill would allow us pick out what helps us and leave out what is not useful.
She cited Kenya which banned the introduction of Bt maize but has allowed testing of Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) maize. Both are genetically modified products.
“We want a system that allows us to go with what benefits us and leave out what does not benefit us,” said Ssengoobe.
Uganda is currently undertaking confined field trials: The crops include bananas, cassava, maize, rice and potatoes.
The National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda has bred a banana resistant to banana bacterial wilt while the National Crops Resources Research Institute, Namulonge has successfully bred a cassava resistant to Cassava Brown Streak Disease. The two are Uganda’s staple food.
Acute food shortage has threatened the forty eight countries which make up sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons have been many, starting from climate change, government policy and farming practices like generations of subsistence farming which has depleted the nutrients in soil and made it less fertile. The region is becoming more arid, adding difficulty to the growing season.
The drought is now threatening southern and East Africa, which is pushing about fifty million people towards famine and according to forecasters, this is just the beginning.
As per the World Bank’s estimations if the current trends persist, approximately forty percent of the land that is used for cultivating corn in sub-Saharan Africa will not be able to sustain the present varieties by 2030.
According to Monsanto, the sustainable agriculture company headquartered in Creve Coeur, Greater St. Louis, Missouri, says it has some solution for the problem. It is testing different varieties of corn that grow better in dry weather and is more resistant to insects, in collaboration with Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation along with others on small plots in South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.
Project director, Mark Edge for Monsanto’s Water Efficient Maize for Africa says, “The long-term growth has to be looked at as a business opportunity.” He added, “The short-term challenge is creating the market and understanding what investments can do that.” The project involves hybrid seeds and not genetically modified varieties which Monsanto produces and has been centre of controversies in recent times.
The sixth of 10 children, Florence Wambugu knew at an early age there must be a better way to ward off pests than mixing ashes and soot. Her mother sold the one cow from their family farm to send her daughter to school and test the theory.
Wambugu would go on to receive a scholarship from the United States Department of Agriculture to spend time at Monsanto, the biotechnology powerhouse in St. Louis, Missouri, where she studied genetic engineering for the sweet potato.
Since returning to Kenya, where she is CEO of Africa Harvest Biotech International, she has extended technologies such as tissue culture for bananas to rural smallholder farmers.
While she says her work is increasing yields and incomes, Wambugu added that the path to commercialization has many challenges. As Kenya considers whether to lift its ban on genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, representatives on both sides of the debate are working to make their positions known. Some, like Wambugu, say GMO bans block African farmers from the technological advances available in the developed world. Others say that the indebtedness that can result from the use of external inputs such as hybrid seeds and chemical fertilizers is not only harmful but criminal.
The debate in Kenya reflects a discussion happening across the African continent about the best ways to feed 9 billion people by 2050 while also preserving the planet for future generations. How might African farmers enhance their productivity and increase their resilience to climate change without compromising the health of their land? How might American companies play a role without short-term gains standing in the way of long-term sustainability?
Such questions are central to discussions taking place from conference rooms at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in Seattle, to banana farms in East Africa. And whether they favor indigenous approaches, scientific technologies, or some combination of the two, global development professionals are trying to build on what they think is working while also navigating government policies, donor positions and farmer preferences.
Advocates of biotechnology say African farmers cannot increase their yields without embracing the technologies that have helped boost productivity elsewhere.
“Most of these farmers don’t use inputs, so it’s by definition organic,” Luc Christiaensen, a senior economist at the World Bank focused on rural development and food security, told Devex. “So the question is can you increase production enough just by organics? I don’t think so.”
Companies such as Monsanto see their work as vital for the future of African agriculture. One example comes from the company’s participation in Water Efficient Maize for Africa, or WEMA, a partnership led by the African Agricultural Technology Foundation in Kenya, and funded by the Gates Foundation, the Howard G. Buffett Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development.
Monsanto has developed drought tolerant maize, or corn, providing the genetic traits royalty free to African seed companies through a partnership with the five National Agricultural Research Systems in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and South Africa.
These countries “fundamentally embrace the idea that technology and innovation needs to be part of the solution for smallholder farmers,” said Monsanto’s Mark Edge, who is also the director of partnerships for WEMA. “We have to demonstrate the value and build the regulatory capacity to vouch for the fact that this technology is safe and will benefit farmers in these countries.”
Smallholder farmers in Kenya had access to the first conventional hybrid developed through the WEMA partnership, under the brand DroughtTEGO. And GM approaches could be introduced “pending research and development results and regulatory approvals in each of the WEMA countries,” such as the potential lift of the GMO ban in Kenya.
Another WEMA partner is the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, which launched in Mexico in 1943 to develop varieties of wheat and maize and help drive the original Green Revolution, a set of initiatives that increased agricultural production in Latin America and Asia.
Agribusinesses such as Monsanto have a financial incentive to participate in African agriculture, and that is precisely what worries critics of biotechnology. The company is donating technology for its WEMA partnership, but since it takes up to 13 years and $136 million dollars to introduce a single biotechnology trait, the long-term plan is to present other technologies for a price.
This is analogous to the pharmaceuticals industry where drug companies spend millions developing new drugs then implement patent protections to get a return on their investment. The challenge in agriculture in comparison to health care is the lack of an insurance system equivalent to help beneficiaries of these technologies to defray the costs.
As a result of partnerships such as the Southern Agriculture Growth Corridor of Tanzania, it’s not uncommon to find Monsanto selling herbicide, or Yara, a chemical company based in Norway, selling fertilizer to rural farmers. Many farmers characterize this as companies with special interests introducing new inputs without consulting them, requiring them to buy fertilizers and pesticides for those hybrid seeds, and then preventing them from replanting seeds from one harvest to the next.
While Monsanto cannot sell GM seeds in most African countries, there are concerns that if restrictions continue to relax, Monsanto will prevent African farmers from replanting seeds from one season to the next, as they have done in the U.S.
“Many organizations that think they do development work want African farmers to be like American farmers,” Janet Maro, the founder and director of Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania, told Devex. “I would tell them to support local technologies in the communities where they work, and not bring in foreign concepts where, when they are finished, the technology goes back with the people who brought it.”
Maro grew up as a member of the banana-growing Chaga tribe in Old Moshi Village, near the base of Mount Kilimanjaro. She acknowledged the value of tissue culture technology, but pointed to research the Gates Foundation has funded on GM bananas as an example of the disconnect between what farmers want and need and what others think is best for them. Part of the justification for vitamin A fortification is to improve vision, she said, even though her parents and grandparents who grew up on these bananas had perfect vision their whole lives.
Chris Macoloo, regional director for Africa at World Neighbors, said he is concerned that if Kenya lifts its ban on GMOs, the decision will benefit large corporations rather than the smallholder farmers who produce 80 percent of the food in Africa. In Rwanda, for example, farmers who cannot afford to comply with the enforced modernization plan risk losing their land. In South Africa, meanwhile, cross-pollination has all but eliminated non-GMO maize.
The unfortunate reality of the emphasis on food security being defined as increasing staple yields for all smallholders is that some farmers who do not adopt innovations will be left behind, said Simon Winter, senior vice president of development at TechnoServe, which is working in Africa to link farmers to new markets.
The global development community plays a key role in strengthening market systems, educating farmers about practices or technologies that will benefit them, and making sure there are adequate safety nets and support systems for those who do not do as well as their neighbors, he said.
Regenerative agriculture, which leverages organic methods to link farming with soil health, can put power back in the hands of farmers, Kate Schecter, World Neighbors CEO, told Devex.
“Funders can be slow to adopt this ‘new way’ of doing agriculture, which is in fact the old way of doing agriculture,” she added.
Practically speaking, American nongovernmental organizations that favor strategies (integrating crops and livestock) over promoting inputs (hybrid seeds and chemical fertilizers) should apply for grants or agreements that fund the work they are doing, rather than going after consulting contracts, which might specify how the job of improving agriculture should be done, she said.
The hybrid approach
While global development organizations diverge on the question of GMOs, they must converge around the ultimate goal of sustainable agriculture, said Angela Hansen, who leads agriculture and food security work at Dalberg, with clients including the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa.
“If we can’t find something that is competitive in terms of productivity, we’re actually systematically disenfranchising these producers and leaving them in this state of exceptionally low yields, which is a poverty trap,” she said. “How can Africa become competitive in agricultural value chains and close the yield gaps? That is going to require technology and focused investment and more scale.”
“We know there were tremendous gains in food production and millions of lives were saved from famine during the green revolution, but there were also unintended consequences,” said Brantley Browning, a policy and advocacy officer at the Gates Foundation, a co-founder of AGRA. “There is a real chance to learn from history and see sustainable productivity gains happen in Africa that are inclusive and beneficial to smallholder farmers.”
With 54 countries and extreme heterogeneity of crops and diets across the continent, Africa may need a range of revolutions to meet local needs and global goals. AGRA is collaborating with more than 100 seed companies, which represent a third of the market, to produce hybrid seeds. Organizations such as One Acre Fund, a nonprofit social enterprise, are providing farmers with seeds, fertilizer, training and financing for these inputs.
Major donors, such as the U.S. government in its Feed the Future initiative, identify biotechnology as an important tool to overcome the production challenges traditional breeding “has been unable to address.”
“While biotechnology is part of a package of new tools and technologies that can increase agricultural production and reduce poverty, it’s just one of many options available to Feed the Future countries as they work to improve food security,” a spokesperson for USAID told Devex. “The choice about whether or not to use biotechnology is up to each partner country.”
In the field
Acknowledging that farmers suffer most from the lack of constructive engagement between the two sides of the GMOs debate, development professionals are doing more to merge the best of technology and tradition.
Mercy Corps, the humanitarian agency based in Portland, Oregon, has experienced constraints not from donors, but from government policies, in its work in agricultural development in Africa. The organization has found that evidence is the best way to change — and open — minds.
“As long as we can produce evidence that the approaches we are using work and have positive impact on productivity without negatively impacting the environment, we are generally free to promote what we think is best,” Sandrine Chetail, the director of Mercy Corps’ agriculture technical support unit, told Devex.
“When governments subsidize inputs and promote certain crops and technologies to be used through their extension agents, investments and policies, it becomes difficult for development organizations to promote alternative crops and technologies,” she said.
The FAO, meanwhile, has proposed a combination of methods through its “Save and Grow” model for more sustainable intensification of smallholder crop production. The plan calls for regenerative agriculture practices that strengthen the livelihoods of farmers and reduce the pressures on the environment.
The private sector is also emerging as a key player in a hybrid approach. Beyond developing and distributing seeds, fertilizers and pesticides, public-private partnerships are modernizing and mechanizing approaches from harvest to storage to transport.
African Development Bank President Akinwumi Adesina has pointed to his work in Nigeria as a success story for public-private partnerships. During his term as minister of agriculture, he helped cut the number of people suffering from hunger in half. Adesina has argued for the need to accelerate investment in research and extension systems to scale these success stories and spur agricultural transformation across the continent.
“Only by rapidly transforming agriculture can Africa lift hundreds of million of people out of poverty into wealth,” he said. “A bold plan to transform agriculture will boost local food production, reduce food import bills, conserve foreign exchange, increase domestic savings and assure strong macroeconomic and fiscal stability.”
The Gates Foundation’s Browning said he does not believe in a one-size-fits-all model. “We believe smallholder farmers in Africa, just like farmers elsewhere in the world, should have a range of choices,” he said. “Applying one ideology and saying you can only do organic or you can only benefit from advanced genetic techniques fails to address the complexity of agriculture.”
Whether they promote practices such as permaculture, where the main input is knowledge, or believe that better seeds lead to better lives, American NGOs in Africa need to demonstrate the impact of those approaches, identify an economic benefit to encourage adoption, and work with farmers who are already vulnerable and being asked to take risks to find the way forward, said Chetail of Mercy Corps.
“Using a participatory approach here is key,” she said. “We come with our knowledge, farmers come with theirs, and together we can take steps to improve what is being done by testing learning, adapting and testing again.”
The 48 countries that make up sub-Saharan Africa have increasingly acute food needs as climate change turns the region’s growing seasons more arid. The drought now devastating southern and East Africa, which threatens 50 million people with famine, is just the start, climate forecasters say. The World Bank projects that, given present trends, about 40 percent of the land used to grow corn in sub-Saharan Africa will no longer be suitable for current varieties by 2030.
Monsanto says it has part of the solution. On small plots of land in Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda, the company—in collaboration with, among others, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation—is testing corn varieties that hold up better against dry weather and insects. Monsanto’s Water Efficient Maize for Africa project is as much about doing well as it is about doing good. “The long-term growth has to be looked at as a business opportunity,” says project director Mark Edge, whose work involves hybrid seeds rather than the genetically modified varieties Monsanto produces, which are controversial on the continent. “The short-term challenge is creating the market and understanding what investments can do that,” he says.
China has been driving global food trends for almost two decades, and Indian diets are beginning to move world markets. But the biggest long-term payoff for agribusiness may be in Africa. Its population is set to more than double by 2050, to 2.5 billion, according to United Nations projections.
Monsanto rival DuPont, which is bigger in Africa, has its own Advanced Maize Seed Adoption Program to shift farmers toward hardier seed varieties. Cargill, the world’s biggest grain trader, last year expanded an animal-feed facility in South Africa. Olam International, among the world’s largest food traders, is boosting its investments in branded foods, including Tasty Tom tomato paste and Pearl biscuits. Agco, the world’s third-biggest maker of farm machinery after Deere, is developing small, solar-powered cooling facilities—a huge need in Africa.
The raw ingredients for an agriculture boom are in place. Africa has the world’s most unused farmland. Crop yields badly trail those in the developed world but could be improved quickly with better seeds and fertilizers. “We see clear potential for Africa to feed its vibrantly growing population,” says Tim Bodin, an economist for Cargill.
Generations of subsistence farming have left soil depleted of nutrients. Howard Buffett, son of Berkshire Hathaway Chairman Warren Buffett, has called for a “brown revolution” to restore soil health in Africa as part of the more than $700 million he’s pledged to combat global hunger over the next decade. The Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda top the list of countries where his eponymous foundation is working to improve farming practices and link growers to markets.
The region also suffers an infrastructure deficit—whether it’s storage silos, properly maintained roads, or shipping terminals. Says Monsanto’s Edge: “You wouldn’t believe how difficult it is to transport 2 tons of grain 20 miles in Kenya,” one of East Africa’s more developed countries. Across the continent, the amount of grain that spoils after harvest would feed 48 million people a year.
Government rules are another obstacle to development. With global food prices at their lowest since 2009, drought-stricken African countries could ramp up imports. But in countries such as Zimbabwe, which said in February that it wouldn’t accept GMO corn for food relief, regulations designed to insulate local farmers from global competition make shipments from abroad more expensive, says Maximo Torero, markets and trade director at the International Food Policy and Research Institute in Washington.
The hurdles threaten to overwhelm investment, which is why global agriculture companies say they can’t fund Africa’s farm boom on their own. “You need each piece of the puzzle to fit correctly,” Edge says. “It’s not only going to come from agricultural companies, though we are a piece of that puzzle.”
Companies weighing whether to invest in Africa may be tempted to wait until higher prices justify it, rather than plowing money in now, when lower commodity prices make riskier investments less attractive. The patience of early investors will be rewarded, says Paul Schickler, president of DuPont Pioneer, the company’s seed division. Agribusiness’s biggest contribution is to blend global resources with regional needs, so the problem of climate change can be managed on the ground by the farmers affected by it. “You won’t be able to import enough food to feed Africa sustainably,” Schickler says. “We can help develop local solutions.”
Three new varieties of conventional maize tolerant to drought and insects will be released later this year, the Agricultural Research Institute of Mozambique (IIAM) to extend the range of seeds available in the domestic market.
The seeds are being selected in a range of seven under evaluation under the project “Maize Water Efficiency for Africa (WEMA),” which is being implemented by IIAM since 2009.
It is three hybrid varieties adapted to agro-ecological conditions of the country in trials to establish its distinctness, uniformity, stability, cultivation value and use to determine the yield and other characteristics that the seeds may have.
The WEMA project coordinator in Mozambique, Pedro Suit, revealed that the seeds were selected in stages, from more than 50 crossbred varieties, of which the last seven that resist drought and pests have been chosen.
Suit said names have not been assigned to three varieties since the last test result, which are usually made only for encoded seeds.
“Usually, the names are assigned during the process of releasing the seeds, because the testing phase we use codes,” explained Peter Suit, ensuring that the new seeds have features to withstand water and high temperatures problems.
The tests in progress and the release of new seeds are being made under the WEMA project, focused on the research, production and development of maize seed varieties tolerant to drought and pests.
Since the beginning of its implementation in the Land of Chokwe station in Gaza, IIAM did many the trials, involving different experimental hybrid seeds, with varying crop cycles, from early, intermediate and late, developed in complete irrigation conditions and stopped at the time flowering in order to compare the income of each system.
Peter Fact indicated how important this project that to help overcome the drought problems facing the country and various diseases affecting the crop, but the varieties of seeds in trials present special characteristics to address these phenomena, they can be released and may have the same or lower yields in the existing market.
Upon being released, the improved seeds will be tested first at low and medium areas and subsequently submitted to higher productivity areas, the case of Angónia in Tete, where it rains regularly.
NB: The story has been translated from Portuguese.